For recent work from Kiel please refer to list in PubMed.
For a comprehensive list of work on epilepsy by Helmut Laufs click here.

Please find in the following sections selected and commented previous work motivating the current research questions.

Own previous work motivating and justifying the goal of quantifying reduced conscious awareness

Tagliazucchi, E., F. von Wegner, A. Morzelewski, V. Brodbeck and H. Laufs (2012). "Dynamic BOLD functional connectivity in humans and its electrophysiological correlates." Front. Hum. Neurosci. (2.895) 6: 339.

Our much undersold study showing that dynmic BOLD functional connectivity has electrophysiological (EEG-) correlates and which these are. The proof of concept study justifying the confidence to identify in EEG similar markers of reduced consciousness as we previously identified with fMRI (see the studies listed below).

Tagliazucchi, E., F. von Wegner, A. Morzelewski, V. Brodbeck, S. Borisov, K. Jahnke and H. Laufs (2013). "Large-scale brain functional modularity is reflected in slow electroencephalographic rhythms across the human non-rapid eye movement sleep cycle." Neuroimage (6.132) 70: 327-339.
Tagliazucchi, E., F. von Wegner, A. Morzelewski, V. Brodbeck, K. Jahnke and H. Laufs (2013). "Breakdown of long-range temporal dependence in default mode and attention networks during deep sleep." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (9.809) 110(38): 15419-15424.

We show that both the spatial and temporal integration of brain activity are a prerequisite for conscious awareness and measure it spatially as the modularity of a network graph and temporally as long range correlations (Hurst exponent). This is very well in line with a hypothesis brought forward by Tononi and others claiming that consciousness corresponds to a system's capacity to integrate information, which can be measured.

Tagliazucchi, E., D. R. Chialvo, M. Siniatchkin, E. Amico, J. F. Brichant, V. Bonhomme, Q. Noirhomme, H. Laufs and S. Laureys (2016). "Large-scale signatures of unconsciousness are consistent with a departure from critical dynamics." J. R. Soc. Interface (3.856) 13(114): 20151027.

This article, based on empirical data, provides a theoretical foundation for the quantitative effects observed in various different conditions of reduced consciousness.

Tagliazucchi, E., L. Roseman, M. Kaelen, C. Orban, S. D. Muthukumaraswamy, K. Murphy, H. Laufs, R. Leech, J. McGonigle, N. Crossley, E. Bullmore, T. Williams, M. Bolstridge, A. Feilding, D. J. Nutt and R. Carhart-Harris (2016). "Increased Global Functional Connectivity Correlates with LSD-Induced Ego Dissolution." Curr. Biol. (9.916) 26(8): 1043-1050.

Here, we extend our observations from states of reduced to such of "enhanced" consciousness and show that the models and theories described above still apply.

Tagliazucchi, E. and H. Laufs (2014). "Decoding wakefulness levels from typical fMRI resting-state data reveals reliable drifts between wakefulness and sleep." Neuron (15.982) 82(3): 695-708.

In this work, among other things, we show that the brain's functional connectivity changes significantly as a function of sleep stage. Who would not show their publication in Neuron if they had one ;-)

Tagliazucchi, E., M. Behrens and H. Laufs (2013). "Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness." Front Psychol 4: 256.

This review summarizes the concepts detailed in the above studies and in the work of others.

"Dynamic imaging" of reduced consciousness

"Dynamic imaging" of reduced consciousness

Laufs, H., R. Rodionov, R. Thornton, J. S. Duncan, L. Lemieux and E. Tagliazucchi (2014). "Altered FMRI connectivity dynamics in temporal lobe epilepsy might explain seizure semiology." Front Neurol 5: 175.

An example of how properly applied dynamic functional connectivity analysis based on fMRI alone reveals meaningful information on epilepsy.

"Static imaging" of reduced consciousness

Laufs, H., K. Hamandi, A. Salek-Haddadi, A. K. Kleinschmidt, J. S. Duncan and L. Lemieux (2007). "Temporal lobe interictal epileptic discharges affect cerebral activity in "default mode" brain regions." Hum. Brain Mapp. (6.924) 28(10): 1023-1032.
Laufs, H., U. Lengler, K. Hamandi, A. Kleinschmidt and K. Krakow (2006). "Linking generalized spike-and-wave discharges and resting state brain activity by using EEG/fMRI in a patient with absence seizures." Epilepsia (4.584) 47(2): 444-448.

Key papers describing changes in regions of the so-called and consciousness subserving default mode network, which shows less activity during epileptiform activity on the EEG than during the interictal phase in epilepsy conditions with seizures associated with reduced consciousness (temporal lobe cognitive seizures, absences).

A common target zone for seizure modulation (drugs, deep brain stimulation)?

Laufs, H., M. P. Richardson, A. Salek-Haddadi, C. Vollmar, J. S. Duncan, K. Gale, L. Lemieux, W. Loscher and M. J. Koepp (2011). "Converging PET and fMRI evidence for a common area involved in human focal epilepsies." Neurology (8.303) 77(9): 904-910.

In this work, we identify a subcortical brain region changing its activity with interictal discharges on the EEG across a variety of focal epilepsies. The analogous region was identified as a seizure modulating area in rats. We propose this region as a potential target for anti-convulsive or anti-epileptic treatment (pharmacologic, brain stimulation).


Laufs, H. (2012). "Functional imaging of seizures and epilepsy: evolution from zones to networks." Curr. Opin. Neurol. (5.729) 25(2): 194-200.
Laufs, H. and J. S. Duncan (2007). "Electroencephalography/functional MRI in human epilepsy: what it currently can and cannot do." Curr. Opin. Neurol. (5.729) 20(4): 417-423.

In these Reviews, we discuss the concept of simultaneous EEG-fMRI in epilepsy and how over time the concept has evolved for conceptualzing epilepsy as a so-called network disease.

Laufs, H., J. Daunizeau, D. W. Carmichael and A. Kleinschmidt (2008). "Recent advances in recording electrophysiological data simultaneously with magnetic resonance imaging." Neuroimage (6.132) 40(2): 515-528.
Laufs, H. (2012). "A personalized history of EEG-fMRI integration." Neuroimage (6.132) 62(2): 1056-1067.

Reviews of the methodological basis of simultaneous EEG-fMRI and personal perspective on the history of the technique.

Arbeitsgruppen der Neurologie an der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel